» EBS Surrogate Builder

Type: amazon-ebssurrogate

The amazon-ebssurrogate Packer builder is able to create Amazon AMIs by running a source instance with an attached volume, provisioning the attached volume in such a way that it can be used as the root volume for the AMI, and then snapshotting and creating the AMI from that volume.

This builder can therefore be used to bootstrap scratch-build images - for example FreeBSD or Ubuntu using ZFS as the root file system.

This is all done in your own AWS account. This builder will create temporary key pairs, security group rules, etc., that provide it temporary access to the instance while the image is being created.

» Configuration Reference

There are many configuration options available for the builder. In addition to the items listed here, you will want to look at the general configuration references for AMI, BlockDevices, Access, Run and Communicator configuration references, which are necessary for this build to succeed and can be found further down the page.

» Required:

  • ami_root_device (RootBlockDevice) - A block device mapping describing the root device of the AMI. This looks like the mappings in ami_block_device_mapping, except with an additional field:

    • source_device_name (string) - The device name of the block device on the source instance to be used as the root device for the AMI. This must correspond to a block device in launch_block_device_mapping.

» Optional:

  • ami_block_device_mappings (awscommon.BlockDevices) - Add one or more block device mappings to the AMI. These will be attached when booting a new instance from your AMI. To add a block device during the Packer build see launch_block_device_mappings below. Your options here may vary depending on the type of VM you use. See the BlockDevices documentation for fields.

  • launch_block_device_mappings (BlockDevices) - Add one or more block devices before the Packer build starts. If you add instance store volumes or EBS volumes in addition to the root device volume, the created AMI will contain block device mapping information for those volumes. Amazon creates snapshots of the source instance's root volume and any other EBS volumes described here. When you launch an instance from this new AMI, the instance automatically launches with these additional volumes, and will restore them from snapshots taken from the source instance. See the BlockDevices documentation for fields.

  • run_volume_tags (awscommon.TagMap) - Tags to apply to the volumes that are launched to create the AMI. These tags are not applied to the resulting AMI unless they're duplicated in tags. This is a template engine, see Build template data for more information.

  • ami_architecture (string) - what architecture to use when registering the final AMI; valid options are "x86_64" or "arm64". Defaults to "x86_64".

» AMI Configuration

» Required:

  • ami_name (string) - The name of the resulting AMI that will appear when managing AMIs in the AWS console or via APIs. This must be unique. To help make this unique, use a function like timestamp (see template engine for more info).

» Optional:

  • ami_description (string) - The description to set for the resulting AMI(s). By default this description is empty. This is a template engine, see Build template data for more information.

  • ami_virtualization_type (string) - The type of virtualization for the AMI you are building. This option is required to register HVM images. Can be paravirtual (default) or hvm.

  • ami_users ([]string) - A list of account IDs that have access to launch the resulting AMI(s). By default no additional users other than the user creating the AMI has permissions to launch it.

  • ami_groups ([]string) - A list of groups that have access to launch the resulting AMI(s). By default no groups have permission to launch the AMI. all will make the AMI publicly accessible.

  • ami_product_codes ([]string) - A list of product codes to associate with the AMI. By default no product codes are associated with the AMI.

  • ami_regions ([]string) - A list of regions to copy the AMI to. Tags and attributes are copied along with the AMI. AMI copying takes time depending on the size of the AMI, but will generally take many minutes.

  • skip_region_validation (bool) - Set to true if you want to skip validation of the ami_regions configuration option. Default false.

  • tags (TagMap) - Tags applied to the AMI. This is a template engine, see Build template data for more information.

  • ena_support (config.Trilean) - Enable enhanced networking (ENA but not SriovNetSupport) on HVM-compatible AMIs. If set, add ec2:ModifyInstanceAttribute to your AWS IAM policy.

    Note: you must make sure enhanced networking is enabled on your instance. See Amazon's documentation on enabling enhanced networking.

  • sriov_support (bool) - Enable enhanced networking (SriovNetSupport but not ENA) on HVM-compatible AMIs. If true, add ec2:ModifyInstanceAttribute to your AWS IAM policy. Note: you must make sure enhanced networking is enabled on your instance. See Amazon's documentation on enabling enhanced networking. Default false.

  • force_deregister (bool) - Force Packer to first deregister an existing AMI if one with the same name already exists. Default false.

  • force_delete_snapshot (bool) - Force Packer to delete snapshots associated with AMIs, which have been deregistered by force_deregister. Default false.

  • encrypt_boot (config.Trilean) - Whether or not to encrypt the resulting AMI when copying a provisioned instance to an AMI. By default, Packer will keep the encryption setting to what it was in the source image. Setting false will result in an unencrypted image, and true will result in an encrypted one. If you have used the launch_block_device_mappings to set an encryption key and that key is the same as the one you want the image encrypted with at the end, then you don't need to set this field; leaving it empty will prevent an unnecessary extra copy step and save you some time.

  • kms_key_id (string) - ID, alias or ARN of the KMS key to use for boot volume encryption. This only applies to the main region, other regions where the AMI will be copied will be encrypted by the default EBS KMS key. For valid formats see KmsKeyId in the AWS API docs - CopyImage. This field is validated by Packer, when using an alias, you will have to prefix kms_key_id with alias/.

  • region_kms_key_ids (map[string]string) - regions to copy the ami to, along with the custom kms key id (alias or arn) to use for encryption for that region. Keys must match the regions provided in ami_regions. If you just want to encrypt using a default ID, you can stick with kms_key_id and ami_regions. If you want a region to be encrypted with that region's default key ID, you can use an empty string "" instead of a key id in this map. (e.g. "us-east-1": "") However, you cannot use default key IDs if you are using this in conjunction with snapshot_users -- in that situation you must use custom keys. For valid formats see KmsKeyId in the AWS API docs - CopyImage.

    This option supercedes the kms_key_id option -- if you set both, and they are different, Packer will respect the value in region_kms_key_ids for your build region and silently disregard the value provided in kms_key_id.

  • skip_save_build_region (bool) - If true, Packer will not check whether an AMI with the ami_name exists in the region it is building in. It will use an intermediary AMI name, which it will not convert to an AMI in the build region. It will copy the intermediary AMI into any regions provided in ami_regions, then delete the intermediary AMI. Default false.

  • snapshot_tags (TagMap) - Tags to apply to snapshot. They will override AMI tags if already applied to snapshot. This is a template engine, see Build template data for more information.

  • snapshot_users ([]string) - A list of account IDs that have access to create volumes from the snapshot(s). By default no additional users other than the user creating the AMI has permissions to create volumes from the backing snapshot(s).

  • snapshot_groups ([]string) - A list of groups that have access to create volumes from the snapshot(s). By default no groups have permission to create volumes from the snapshot(s). all will make the snapshot publicly accessible.

» Access Configuration

» Required:

  • access_key (string) - The access key used to communicate with AWS. Learn how to set this. On EBS, this is not required if you are using use_vault_aws_engine for authentication instead.

  • region (string) - The name of the region, such as us-east-1, in which to launch the EC2 instance to create the AMI. When chroot building, this value is guessed from environment.

  • secret_key (string) - The secret key used to communicate with AWS. Learn how to set this. This is not required if you are using use_vault_aws_engine for authentication instead.

» Optional:

  • custom_endpoint_ec2 (string) - This option is useful if you use a cloud provider whose API is compatible with aws EC2. Specify another endpoint like this https://ec2.custom.endpoint.com.

  • decode_authorization_messages (bool) - Enable automatic decoding of any encoded authorization (error) messages using the sts:DecodeAuthorizationMessage API. Note: requires that the effective user/role have permissions to sts:DecodeAuthorizationMessage on resource *. Default false.

  • insecure_skip_tls_verify (bool) - This allows skipping TLS verification of the AWS EC2 endpoint. The default is false.

  • mfa_code (string) - The MFA TOTP code. This should probably be a user variable since it changes all the time.

  • profile (string) - The profile to use in the shared credentials file for AWS. See Amazon's documentation on specifying profiles for more details.

  • skip_region_validation (bool) - Set to true if you want to skip validation of the ami_regions configuration option. Default false.

  • skip_metadata_api_check (bool) - Skip Metadata Api Check

  • token (string) - The access token to use. This is different from the access key and secret key. If you're not sure what this is, then you probably don't need it. This will also be read from the AWS_SESSION_TOKEN environmental variable.

  • vault_aws_engine (VaultAWSEngineOptions) - Get credentials from Hashicorp Vault's aws secrets engine. You must already have created a role to use. For more information about generating credentials via the Vault engine, see the Vault docs. If you set this flag, you must also set the below options:

    • name (string) - Required. Specifies the name of the role to generate credentials against. This is part of the request URL.
    • engine_name (string) - The name of the aws secrets engine. In the Vault docs, this is normally referred to as "aws", and Packer will default to "aws" if engine_name is not set.
    • role_arn (string)- The ARN of the role to assume if credential_type on the Vault role is assumed_role. Must match one of the allowed role ARNs in the Vault role. Optional if the Vault role only allows a single AWS role ARN; required otherwise.
    • ttl (string) - Specifies the TTL for the use of the STS token. This is specified as a string with a duration suffix. Valid only when credential_type is assumed_role or federation_token. When not specified, the default_sts_ttl set for the role will be used. If that is also not set, then the default value of 3600s will be used. AWS places limits on the maximum TTL allowed. See the AWS documentation on the DurationSeconds parameter for AssumeRole (for assumed_role credential types) and GetFederationToken (for federation_token credential types) for more details.

    {
      "vault_aws_engine": {
          "name": "myrole",
          "role_arn": "myarn",
          "ttl": "3600s"
      }
    }
    

» Run Configuration

» Required:

  • instance_type (string) - The EC2 instance type to use while building the AMI, such as t2.small.

  • source_ami (string) - The source AMI whose root volume will be copied and provisioned on the currently running instance. This must be an EBS-backed AMI with a root volume snapshot that you have access to. Note: this is not used when from_scratch is set to true.

» Optional:

  • associate_public_ip_address (bool) - If using a non-default VPC, public IP addresses are not provided by default. If this is true, your new instance will get a Public IP. default: false

  • availability_zone (string) - Destination availability zone to launch instance in. Leave this empty to allow Amazon to auto-assign.

  • block_duration_minutes (int64) - Requires spot_price to be set. The required duration for the Spot Instances (also known as Spot blocks). This value must be a multiple of 60 (60, 120, 180, 240, 300, or 360). You can't specify an Availability Zone group or a launch group if you specify a duration.

  • disable_stop_instance (bool) - Packer normally stops the build instance after all provisioners have run. For Windows instances, it is sometimes desirable to run Sysprep which will stop the instance for you. If this is set to true, Packer will not stop the instance but will assume that you will send the stop signal yourself through your final provisioner. You can do this with a windows-shell provisioner. Note that Packer will still wait for the instance to be stopped, and failing to send the stop signal yourself, when you have set this flag to true, will cause a timeout. Example of a valid shutdown command:

    {
    "type": "windows-shell",
    "inline": ["\"c:\Program Files\Amazon\Ec2ConfigService\ec2config.exe\" -sysprep"]
    }
    
  • ebs_optimized (bool) - Mark instance as EBS Optimized. Default false.

  • enable_t2_unlimited (bool) - Enabling T2 Unlimited allows the source instance to burst additional CPU beyond its available CPU Credits for as long as the demand exists. This is in contrast to the standard configuration that only allows an instance to consume up to its available CPU Credits. See the AWS documentation for T2 Unlimited and the T2 Unlimited Pricing section of the Amazon EC2 On-Demand Pricing document for more information. By default this option is disabled and Packer will set up a T2 Standard instance instead.

    To use T2 Unlimited you must use a T2 instance type, e.g. t2.micro. Additionally, T2 Unlimited cannot be used in conjunction with Spot Instances, e.g. when the spot_price option has been configured. Attempting to do so will cause an error.

  • iam_instance_profile (string) - The name of an IAM instance profile to launch the EC2 instance with.

  • temporary_iam_instance_profile_policy_document (PolicyDocument) - Temporary IAM instance profile policy document If IamInstanceProfile is specified it will be used instead. Example:

    {
        "Version": "2012-10-17",
        "Statement": [
            {
                "Action": [
                "logs:"
                ],
                "Effect": "Allow",
                "Resource": "*"
            }
        ]
    }
    
  • shutdown_behavior (string) - Automatically terminate instances on shutdown in case Packer exits ungracefully. Possible values are stop and terminate. Defaults to stop.

  • security_group_filter (SecurityGroupFilterOptions) - Filters used to populate the security_group_ids field. Example:

    {
      "security_group_filter": {
        "filters": {
          "tag:Class": "packer"
        }
      }
    }
    

    This selects the SG's with tag Class with the value packer.

    • filters (map of strings) - filters used to select a security_group_ids. Any filter described in the docs for DescribeSecurityGroups is valid.

    security_group_ids take precedence over this.

  • run_tags (map[string]string) - Tags to apply to the instance that is that is launched to create the EBS volumes. This is a template engine, see Build template data for more information.

  • security_group_id (string) - The ID (not the name) of the security group to assign to the instance. By default this is not set and Packer will automatically create a new temporary security group to allow SSH access. Note that if this is specified, you must be sure the security group allows access to the ssh_port given below.

  • security_group_ids ([]string) - A list of security groups as described above. Note that if this is specified, you must omit the security_group_id.

  • source_ami_filter (AmiFilterOptions) - Filters used to populate the source_ami field. Example:

      {
        "source_ami_filter": {
          "filters": {
            "virtualization-type": "hvm",
            "name": "ubuntu/images/*ubuntu-xenial-16.04-amd64-server-*",
            "root-device-type": "ebs"
          },
          "owners": ["099720109477"],
          "most_recent": true
        }
      }
    

    This selects the most recent Ubuntu 16.04 HVM EBS AMI from Canonical. NOTE: This will fail unless exactly one AMI is returned. In the above example, most_recent will cause this to succeed by selecting the newest image.

    • filters (map of strings) - filters used to select a source_ami. NOTE: This will fail unless exactly one AMI is returned. Any filter described in the docs for DescribeImages is valid.
    • owners (array of strings) - Filters the images by their owner. You may specify one or more AWS account IDs, "self" (which will use the account whose credentials you are using to run Packer), or an AWS owner alias: for example, amazon, aws-marketplace, or microsoft. This option is required for security reasons.
    • most_recent (boolean) - Selects the newest created image when true. This is most useful for selecting a daily distro build.

    You may set this in place of source_ami or in conjunction with it. If you set this in conjunction with source_ami, the source_ami will be added to the filter. The provided source_ami must meet all of the filtering criteria provided in source_ami_filter; this pins the AMI returned by the filter, but will cause Packer to fail if the source_ami does not exist.

  • spot_instance_types ([]string) - a list of acceptable instance types to run your build on. We will request a spot instance using the max price of spot_price and the allocation strategy of "lowest price". Your instance will be launched on an instance type of the lowest available price that you have in your list. This is used in place of instance_type. You may only set either spot_instance_types or instance_type, not both. This feature exists to help prevent situations where a Packer build fails because a particular availability zone does not have capacity for the specific instance_type requested in instance_type.

  • spot_price (string) - The maximum hourly price to pay for a spot instance to create the AMI. Spot instances are a type of instance that EC2 starts when the current spot price is less than the maximum price you specify. Spot price will be updated based on available spot instance capacity and current spot instance requests. It may save you some costs. You can set this to auto for Packer to automatically discover the best spot price or to "0" to use an on demand instance (default).

  • spot_price_auto_product (string) - Required if spot_price is set to auto. This tells Packer what sort of AMI you're launching to find the best spot price. This must be one of: Linux/UNIX, SUSE Linux, Windows, Linux/UNIX (Amazon VPC), SUSE Linux (Amazon VPC), Windows (Amazon VPC)

  • spot_tags (map[string]string) - Requires spot_price to be set. This tells Packer to apply tags to the spot request that is issued.

  • subnet_filter (SubnetFilterOptions) - Filters used to populate the subnet_id field. Example:

      {
        "subnet_filter": {
          "filters": {
            "tag:Class": "build"
          },
          "most_free": true,
          "random": false
        }
      }
    

    This selects the Subnet with tag Class with the value build, which has the most free IP addresses. NOTE: This will fail unless exactly one Subnet is returned. By using most_free or random one will be selected from those matching the filter.

    • filters (map of strings) - filters used to select a subnet_id. NOTE: This will fail unless exactly one Subnet is returned. Any filter described in the docs for DescribeSubnets is valid.
    • most_free (boolean) - The Subnet with the most free IPv4 addresses will be used if multiple Subnets matches the filter.
    • random (boolean) - A random Subnet will be used if multiple Subnets matches the filter. most_free have precendence over this.

    subnet_id take precedence over this.

  • subnet_id (string) - If using VPC, the ID of the subnet, such as subnet-12345def, where Packer will launch the EC2 instance. This field is required if you are using an non-default VPC.

  • temporary_key_pair_name (string) - The name of the temporary key pair to generate. By default, Packer generates a name that looks like packer_<UUID>, where <UUID> is a 36 character unique identifier.

  • temporary_security_group_source_cidrs ([]string) - A list of IPv4 CIDR blocks to be authorized access to the instance, when packer is creating a temporary security group.

    The default is 0.0.0.0/0. This is only used when security_group_id or security_group_ids is not specified.

  • user_data (string) - User data to apply when launching the instance. Note that you need to be careful about escaping characters due to the templates being JSON. It is often more convenient to use user_data_file, instead. Packer will not automatically wait for a user script to finish before shutting down the instance this must be handled in a provisioner.

  • user_data_file (string) - Path to a file that will be used for the user data when launching the instance.

  • vpc_filter (VpcFilterOptions) - Filters used to populate the vpc_id field. Example:

    {
      "vpc_filter": {
        "filters": {
          "tag:Class": "build",
          "isDefault": "false",
          "cidr": "/24"
        }
      }
    }
    

    This selects the VPC with tag Class with the value build, which is not the default VPC, and have a IPv4 CIDR block of /24. NOTE: This will fail unless exactly one VPC is returned.

    • filters (map of strings) - filters used to select a vpc_id. NOTE: This will fail unless exactly one VPC is returned. Any filter described in the docs for DescribeVpcs is valid.

    vpc_id take precedence over this.

  • vpc_id (string) - If launching into a VPC subnet, Packer needs the VPC ID in order to create a temporary security group within the VPC. Requires subnet_id to be set. If this field is left blank, Packer will try to get the VPC ID from the subnet_id.

  • windows_password_timeout (duration string | ex: "1h5m2s") - The timeout for waiting for a Windows password for Windows instances. Defaults to 20 minutes. Example value: 10m

  • ssh_interface (string) - SSH Interface

» Block Devices Configuration

Block devices can be nested in the ami_block_device_mappings array.

These will be attached when booting a new instance from your AMI. Your options here may vary depending on the type of VM you use.

Example use case:

The following mapping will tell Packer to encrypt the root volume of the build instance at launch using a specific non-default kms key:

"launch_block_device_mappings": [{
        "device_name": "/dev/sda1",
        "encrypted": true,
        "kms_key_id": "1a2b3c4d-5e6f-1a2b-3c4d-5e6f1a2b3c4d"
}]

Documentation for Block Devices Mappings can be found here: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/block-device-mapping-concepts.html

These mappings give you control over either the volumes generated for the Packer build via launch_block_device_mappings, or the volumes that Packer will save with the artifact AMI via ami_block_device_mappings.

» Optional only for launch_block_device_mappings

  • omit_from_artifact (bool) - If true, this block device will not be snapshotted and the created AMI will not contain block device mapping information for this volume. If false, the block device will be mapped into the final created AMI. Set this option to true if you need a block device mounted in the surrogate AMI but not in the final created AMI.

» Optional:

  • delete_on_termination (bool) - Indicates whether the EBS volume is deleted on instance termination. Default false. NOTE: If this value is not explicitly set to true and volumes are not cleaned up by an alternative method, additional volumes will accumulate after every build.

  • device_name (string) - The device name exposed to the instance (for example, /dev/sdh or xvdh). Required for every device in the block device mapping.

  • encrypted (config.Trilean) - Indicates whether or not to encrypt the volume. By default, Packer will keep the encryption setting to what it was in the source image. Setting false will result in an unencrypted device, and true will result in an encrypted one.

  • iops (int64) - The number of I/O operations per second (IOPS) that the volume supports. See the documentation on IOPs for more information

  • no_device (bool) - Suppresses the specified device included in the block device mapping of the AMI.

  • snapshot_id (string) - The ID of the snapshot.

  • virtual_name (string) - The virtual device name. See the documentation on Block Device Mapping for more information.

  • volume_type (string) - The volume type. gp2 for General Purpose (SSD) volumes, io1 for Provisioned IOPS (SSD) volumes, st1 for Throughput Optimized HDD, sc1 for Cold HDD, and standard for Magnetic volumes.

  • volume_size (int64) - The size of the volume, in GiB. Required if not specifying a snapshot_id.

  • kms_key_id (string) - ID, alias or ARN of the KMS key to use for boot volume encryption. This only applies to the main region, other regions where the AMI will be copied will be encrypted by the default EBS KMS key. For valid formats see KmsKeyId in the AWS API docs - CopyImage This field is validated by Packer, when using an alias, you will have to prefix kms_key_id with alias/.

» Communicator Configuration

» Optional:

  • communicator (string) - Packer currently supports three kinds of communicators:

    • none - No communicator will be used. If this is set, most provisioners also can't be used.
    • ssh - An SSH connection will be established to the machine. This is usually the default.
    • winrm - A WinRM connection will be established.

    In addition to the above, some builders have custom communicators they can use. For example, the Docker builder has a "docker" communicator that uses docker exec and docker cp to execute scripts and copy files.

  • pause_before_connecting (duration string | ex: "1h5m2s") - We recommend that you enable SSH or WinRM as the very last step in your guest's bootstrap script, but sometimes you may have a race condition where you need Packer to wait before attempting to connect to your guest.

    If you end up in this situation, you can use the template option pause_before_connecting. By default, there is no pause. For example:

    {
        "communicator": "ssh",
        "ssh_username": "myuser",
        "pause_before_connecting": "10m"
      }
    

    In this example, Packer will check whether it can connect, as normal. But once a connection attempt is successful, it will disconnect and then wait 10 minutes before connecting to the guest and beginning provisioning.

  • ssh_host (string) - The address to SSH to. This usually is automatically configured by the builder.

  • ssh_port (int) - The port to connect to SSH. This defaults to 22.

  • ssh_username (string) - The username to connect to SSH with. Required if using SSH.

  • ssh_password (string) - A plaintext password to use to authenticate with SSH.

  • ssh_keypair_name (string) - If specified, this is the key that will be used for SSH with the machine. The key must match a key pair name loaded up into Amazon EC2. By default, this is blank, and Packer will generate a temporary keypair unless ssh_password is used. ssh_private_key_file or ssh_agent_auth must be specified when ssh_keypair_name is utilized.

  • temporary_key_pair_name (string) - The name of the temporary key pair to generate. By default, Packer generates a name that looks like packer_<UUID>, where <UUID> is a 36 character unique identifier.

  • ssh_clear_authorized_keys (bool) - If true, Packer will attempt to remove its temporary key from ~/.ssh/authorized_keys and /root/.ssh/authorized_keys. This is a mostly cosmetic option, since Packer will delete the temporary private key from the host system regardless of whether this is set to true (unless the user has set the -debug flag). Defaults to "false"; currently only works on guests with sed installed.

  • ssh_private_key_file (string) - Path to a PEM encoded private key file to use to authenticate with SSH. The ~ can be used in path and will be expanded to the home directory of current user.

  • ssh_pty (bool) - If true, a PTY will be requested for the SSH connection. This defaults to false.

  • ssh_timeout (duration string | ex: "1h5m2s") - The time to wait for SSH to become available. Packer uses this to determine when the machine has booted so this is usually quite long. Example value: 10m.

  • ssh_agent_auth (bool) - If true, the local SSH agent will be used to authenticate connections to the source instance. No temporary keypair will be created, and the values of ssh_password and ssh_private_key_file will be ignored. To use this option with a key pair already configured in the source AMI, leave the ssh_keypair_name blank. To associate an existing key pair in AWS with the source instance, set the ssh_keypair_name field to the name of the key pair.

  • ssh_disable_agent_forwarding (bool) - If true, SSH agent forwarding will be disabled. Defaults to false.

  • ssh_handshake_attempts (int) - The number of handshakes to attempt with SSH once it can connect. This defaults to 10.

  • ssh_bastion_host (string) - A bastion host to use for the actual SSH connection.

  • ssh_bastion_port (int) - The port of the bastion host. Defaults to 22.

  • ssh_bastion_agent_auth (bool) - If true, the local SSH agent will be used to authenticate with the bastion host. Defaults to false.

  • ssh_bastion_username (string) - The username to connect to the bastion host.

  • ssh_bastion_password (string) - The password to use to authenticate with the bastion host.

  • ssh_bastion_private_key_file (string) - Path to a PEM encoded private key file to use to authenticate with the bastion host. The ~ can be used in path and will be expanded to the home directory of current user.

  • ssh_file_transfer_method (string) - scp or sftp - How to transfer files, Secure copy (default) or SSH File Transfer Protocol.

  • ssh_proxy_host (string) - A SOCKS proxy host to use for SSH connection

  • ssh_proxy_port (int) - A port of the SOCKS proxy. Defaults to 1080.

  • ssh_proxy_username (string) - The optional username to authenticate with the proxy server.

  • ssh_proxy_password (string) - The optional password to use to authenticate with the proxy server.

  • ssh_keep_alive_interval (duration string | ex: "1h5m2s") - How often to send "keep alive" messages to the server. Set to a negative value (-1s) to disable. Example value: 10s. Defaults to 5s.

  • ssh_read_write_timeout (duration string | ex: "1h5m2s") - The amount of time to wait for a remote command to end. This might be useful if, for example, packer hangs on a connection after a reboot. Example: 5m. Disabled by default.

  • ssh_remote_tunnels ([]string) -

  • ssh_local_tunnels ([]string) -

  • ssh_interface (string) - One of public_ip, private_ip, public_dns, or private_dns. If set, either the public IP address, private IP address, public DNS name or private DNS name will used as the host for SSH. The default behaviour if inside a VPC is to use the public IP address if available, otherwise the private IP address will be used. If not in a VPC the public DNS name will be used. Also works for WinRM.

    Where Packer is configured for an outbound proxy but WinRM traffic should be direct, ssh_interface must be set to private_dns and <region>.compute.internal included in the NO_PROXY environment variable.

  • ssh_ip_version (string) - The IP version to use for SSH connections, valid values are 4 and 6. Useful on dual stacked instances where the default behavior is to connect via whichever IP address is returned first from the OpenStack API.

» Basic Example

{
   "type" : "amazon-ebssurrogate",
   "secret_key" : "YOUR SECRET KEY HERE",
   "access_key" : "YOUR KEY HERE",
   "region" : "us-east-1",
   "ssh_username" : "ubuntu",
   "instance_type" : "t2.medium",
   "source_ami" : "ami-40d28157",
   "launch_block_device_mappings" : [
     {
       "volume_type" : "gp2",
       "device_name" : "/dev/xvdf",
       "delete_on_termination" : false,
       "volume_size" : 10
     }
   ],
   "ami_root_device": {
     "source_device_name": "/dev/xvdf",
     "device_name": "/dev/xvda",
     "delete_on_termination": true,
     "volume_size": 16,
     "volume_type": "gp2"
   }
}

Further information on locating AMI IDs and their relationship to instance types and regions can be found in the AWS EC2 Documentation for Linux or for Windows.

» Accessing the Instance to Debug

If you need to access the instance to debug for some reason, run this builder with the -debug flag. In debug mode, the Amazon builder will save the private key in the current directory and will output the DNS or IP information as well. You can use this information to access the instance as it is running.

» Build template data

In configuration directives marked as a template engine above, the following variables are available:

  • BuildRegion - The region (for example eu-central-1) where Packer is building the AMI.
  • SourceAMI - The source AMI ID (for example ami-a2412fcd) used to build the AMI.
  • SourceAMIName - The source AMI Name (for example ubuntu/images/ebs-ssd/ubuntu-xenial-16.04-amd64-server-20180306) used to build the AMI.
  • SourceAMITags - The source AMI Tags, as a map[string]string object.

» Which SSH Options to use:

This chart breaks down what Packer does if you set any of the below SSH options:

ssh_password ssh_private_key_file ssh_keypair_name temporary_key_pair_name Packer will...
X - - - ssh authenticating with username and given password
- X - - ssh authenticating with private key file
- X X - ssh authenticating with given private key file and "attaching" the keypair to the instance
- - - X Create a temporary ssh keypair with a particular name, clean it up
- - - - Create a temporary ssh keypair with a default name, clean it up